Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread.
The major types of cancer are carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Carcinomas -- the most commonly diagnosed cancers -- originate in the skin, lungs, breasts, pancreas, and other organs and glands. Lymphomas are cancers of lymphocytes. Leukemia is cancer of the blood.
Biological or internal factors, such as age, gender, inherited genetic defects and skin type. environmental exposure, for instance to radon and UV radiation, and fine particulate matter. occupational risk factors, including carcinogens such as many chemicals, radioactive materials and asbestos. ...
Examples of blood tests used to diagnose cancer include: Complete blood count (CBC). This common blood test measures the amount of various types of blood cells in a sample of your blood. Blood cancers may be detected using this test if too many or too few of a type of blood cell or abnormal cells are found.
Types of Cancer Treatment. Surgery. When used to treat cancer, surgery is a procedure in which a surgeon removes cancer from your body. Radiation Therapy. Chemotherapy. Immunotherapy to Treat Cancer. Targeted Therapy. Hormone Therapy. Stem Cell Transplant. Precision Medicine.
Cancer research is research into cancer to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure. Cancer research ranges from epidemiology, molecular bioscience to the performance of clinical trials to evaluate and compare applications of the various cancer treatments.
May 23, 2018 - Health Minister's Cancer Patient Fund (HMCPF) has been set up for providing financial assistance to the poor patients suffering from cancer. A Corpus Fund of Rs. 100 crore has been set up, which has been placed in fixed deposit. ... Patients suffering from cancer and living below poverty line, prescribed from time to time.
According to health department officials, they are distributing free medicines which are useful in treatment of cancer including chemotherapy such as Imatinib, Melphalan, and Cytarabine.
Following are the top best free cancer treatment hospitals/centres in India: Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai,OTHERS
It's Free. It can match you with a donor near you in minutes. And you can save the life of a loved one. You can also Sign up as a donor at the site and save the life ...
Here is the list and links of websites and web links of the Blood Donors in India. There are many Blood donors available in various places in different states and ...
Aug 20, 2018 - Following are the top best free cancer treatment hospitals/centres in India: Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai. Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore. Tata Memorial Hospital, Kolkata. Regional Cancer Center,Thiruvananthapuram. Cancer Care Foundation of India, Mumbai.
- Sanjay's mother now hopes against all odds that her son would recover. Many terminally ill cancer patients have found succour in the last stages of their life at this ashram , set up in 1978 by oncologist L J de Souza in Mumbai. The ashram now has branches in Goa and Delhi as well.
ICS was the first to offer cancer insurance in collaboration with New India ... Financial assistance of over Rs 30 lakhs per year is given to patients in need.
Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can affect any part of the body. Other terms used are malignant tumours and neoplasms. One defining feature of cancer is the rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining parts of the body and spread to other organs, the latter process is referred to as metastasizing. Metastases are a major cause of death from cancer.
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. The most common cancers are:
The most common causes of cancer death are cancers of:
Cancer arises from the transformation of normal cells into tumour cells in a multistage process that generally progresses from a pre-cancerous lesion to a malignant tumour. These changes are the result of the interaction between a person's genetic factors and 3 categories of external agents, including:
WHO, through its cancer research agency, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), maintains a classification of cancer-causing agents.
Ageing is another fundamental factor for the development of cancer. The incidence of cancer rises dramatically with age, most likely due to a build-up of risks for specific cancers that increase with age. The overall risk accumulation is combined with the tendency for cellular repair mechanisms to be less effective as a person grows older.
Tobacco use, alcohol use, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity are major cancer risk factors worldwide and are also the 4 shared risk factors for other noncommunicable diseases.
Some chronic infections are risk factors for cancer and have major relevance in low- and middle-income countries. Approximately 15% of cancers diagnosed in 2012 were attributed to carcinogenic infections, including Helicobacter pylori, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, and Epstein-Barr virus3.
Hepatitis B and C virus and some types of HPV increase the risk for liver and cervical cancer, respectively. Infection with HIV substantially increases the risk of cancers such as cervical cancer.
Between 30–50% of cancers can currently be prevented by avoiding risk factors and implementing existing evidence-based prevention strategies. The cancer burden can also be reduced through early detection of cancer and management of patients who develop cancer. Many cancers have a high chance of cure if diagnosed early and treated adequately.
Modifying or avoiding key risk factors can significantly reduce the burden of cancer. These risk factors include:
Tobacco use is the single most important risk factor for cancer and is responsible for approximately 22% of cancer-related deaths globally2.
To prevent cancer, people may:
Vaccination against these HPV and hepatitis B viruses could prevent 1 million cancer cases each year3.
Cancer mortality can be reduced if cases are detected and treated early. There are 2 components of early detection:
When identified early, cancer is more likely to respond to effective treatment and can result in a greater probability of surviving, less morbidity, and less expensive treatment. Significant improvements can be made in the lives of cancer patients by detecting cancer early and avoiding delays in care.
Early diagnosis consists of 3 steps that must be integrated and provided in a timely manner:
Early diagnosis is relevant in all settings and the majority of cancers. In absence of early diagnosis, patients are diagnosed at late stages when curative treatment may no longer be an option. Programmes can be designed to reduce delays in, and barriers to, care, allowing patients to access treatment in a timely manner.
Screening aims to identify individuals with abnormalities suggestive of a specific cancer or pre-cancer who have not developed any symptoms and refer them promptly for diagnosis and treatment.
Screening programmes can be effective for select cancer types when appropriate tests are used, implemented effectively, linked to other steps in the screening process and when quality is assured. In general, a screening programme is a far more complex public health intervention compared to early diagnosis.
Examples of screening methods are:
A correct cancer diagnosis is essential for adequate and effective treatment because every cancer type requires a specific treatment regimen that encompasses one or more modalities such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Determining the goals of treatment and palliative care is an important first step, and health services should be integrated and people-centred. The primary goal is generally to cure cancer or to considerably prolong life. Improving the patient's quality of life is also an important goal. This can be achieved by supportive or palliative care and psychosocial support.
Some of the most common cancer types, such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, oral cancer, and colorectal cancer have high cure rates when detected early and treated according to best practices.
Some cancer types, even when cancerous cells have traveled to other areas of the body, such as testicular seminoma and leukaemias and lymphomas in children, can have high cure rates if appropriate treatment is provided.
Palliative care is treatment to relieve, rather than cure, symptoms caused by cancer and improve the quality of life of patients and their families. Palliative care can help people live more comfortably. It is an urgent humanitarian need for people worldwide with cancer and other chronic fatal diseases and particularly needed in places with a high proportion of patients in advanced stages of cancer where there is little chance of cure.
Relief from physical, psychosocial, and spiritual problems can be achieved in over 90% of advanced cancer patients through palliative care.
Effective public health strategies, comprising of community- and home-based care are essential to provide pain relief and palliative care for patients and their families in low-resource settings.
Improved access to oral morphine is mandatory for the treatment of moderate to severe cancer pain, suffered by over 80% of cancer patients in terminal phase.
In 2017, the World Health Assembly passed the resolution Cancer Prevention and Control through an Integrated Approach (WHA70.12) urges governments and WHO to accelerate action to achieve the targets specified in the Global Action Plan and 2030 UN Agenda for Sustainable Development to reduce premature mortality from cancer.
WHO and IARC collaborate with other UN organizations within the UN Interagency Task Force on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and partners to:
provide technical assistance for rapid, effective transfer of best practice interventions to countries.
(1) Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11
Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013.
(2) GBD 2015 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet. 2016 Oct; 388 (10053):1659-1724.
(3) Plummer M, de Martel C, Vignat J, Ferlay J, Bray F, Franceschi S. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2012: a synthetic analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2016 Sep;4(9):e609-16. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30143-7.
(4) Stewart BW, Wild CP, editors. World cancer report 2014
Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014.
(5) Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development. International Agency for Research on Cancer
Cancer destroys not just the body and mind, but a family’s finance. By the time is it done, it makes sure there is nothing left to build. General health insurance does not help, and even the most comprehensive plans cannot cover for the entire treatment. The logical step would be to get a critical illness cover.
Less than 20% of all Indians are covered under health insurance. Over 80% of Indians are still uninsured, some because they are unaware that they can benefit from government health insurance.
Here are some government schemes that can help fund your cancer treatment.
The Ministry of Health & Family Welfare offers the Health Minister’s Cancer Patient Fund (HMCPF) under Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi. This is available for patients living below the poverty line.
How to apply :
List of Regional Cancer Centers under this scheme
Also under The Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, the HMDG offers up to a maximum of Rs. 50,000 to poor patients in cases where free medical facilities are not available at government hospitals. Only those having an annual family income up to Rs.1.25,000 and below are eligible for financial assistance of up to 70% of the total bill.
How to apply:
Applicable for retired Central Government employees & dependents, which offers coverage for cancer treatment at approved rates from any hospital, apart from the hospitals set up under CGHS.
How to apply:
Download application here and submit along with proof of eligibility. Check eligibility below:
An Ayushman Bharat initiative, the National Health Protection Scheme provides coverage up to 5 lakh rupees per family per year for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization. Head to this page to learn more about this.
Originally intended for victims of natural disasters also provides partial coverage for heart surgeries, kidney transplantation, cancer treatment, and more such treatments.
How to Apply
States/UTs (with Legislature) have set up Illness Assistance Fund that offers coverage up to Rs. 1 Lakh for cancer treatment at government hospitals within the state. While some states do not have this scheme, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tripura, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Kerala, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Goa, Gujarat, Sikkim, Bihar, Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand, Haryana, Uttarakhand , Punjab and Uttar Pradesh and the NCT of Delhi and Puducherry support it.
How to apply
Under this, states provide financial assistance to the poor for cancer treatment. You can find complete details of the financial assistance available in your state at this link.
Aadhar-linked Health cards provided under the scheme to single, widowed, medially weak and elderly women, can be used to avail subsidized cancer treatment. The policy is still pending approval. Follow this story for future updates. Click here to read about provisions proposed under this draft policy.
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